Alpinia galangal Linn. Zingiberaceae: In rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis, administration of galangin (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and MEAO significantly ((P<) suppressed the paw swelling, increased the paw withdrawal latency, and reduced the paw thickness. Diclofenac was taken as standard. Galangin (20mg/kg) and MEAO inhibited the increased level of serum lysosomal enzyme activity viz. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phophatase (ALP). Galangin, MEAO exhibited anti-arthritic activity by improving the altered haematological parameters.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes your body’s immune system to mistakenly attack your joints. As a result, the tissues surrounding those areas become inflamed, creating redness, swelling, stiffness, and pain.  RA is chronic (constantly recurring,) and can create long-term effects such as deformity of your joints and destruction of your bones and cartilage. Although no cure yet exists for rheumatoid arthritis, there are many treatments that can help manage the symptoms and slow the progress of the disease. It is important to find the right treatments that work for you.
The immediate effects of AAS in the brain are mediated by their binding to androgen (male sex hormone) and estrogen (female sex hormone) receptors on the surface of a cell. This AAS–receptor complex can then shuttle into the cell nucleus to influence patterns of gene expression. Because of this, the acute effects of AAS in the brain are substantially different from those of other drugs of abuse. The most important difference is that AAS are not euphorigenic, meaning they do not trigger rapid increases in the neurotransmitter dopamine , which is responsible for the “high” that often drives substance abuse behaviors. However, long-term use of AAS can eventually have an impact on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals—such as dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems—that are affected by other drugs of abuse. Considering the combined effect of their complex direct and indirect actions, it is not surprising that AAS can affect mood and behavior in significant ways.