In 2008 the Endocrine Society published diagnostic guidelines for Cushing’s syndrome, wherein they recommended midnight salivary cortisol testing on two consecutive days as one possible initial screening tool.  A 2009 review concluded that late-night salivary cortisol testing is a suitable alternative to serum cortisol testing for diagnosing Cushing’s syndrome, reporting that both sensitivity and specificity exceeded ninety percent.  In 2010 Sakihara, et al ., evaluated the usefulness and accuracy of salivary, plasma, and urinary cortisol levels and determined salivary cortisol to be the “method of choice” for Cushing’s syndrome screening.  In 2008 Restituto, et al ., found early morning salivary cortisol to be “as good as serum” as an Addison’s disease screening technique.  In 2010 Bagcim et al ., determined that saliva melatonin levels “reflect those in serum at any time of the day” and are a reliable alternative to serum melatonin to study the pineal physiology in newborns.  A 2008 review article described saliva melatonin testing as a “practical and reliable method for field, clinical, and research trials”. 
Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).