There are many reported incidences of varying degrees of psyllium allergy including: Nurses experiencing symptoms such as anaphylactoid reaction, chest congestion, sneezing and watery eyes (some of these reactions taking several years to acquire); 51 , 52 a case report describing severe anaphylactic shock following psyllium laxative ingestion, linked occupational respiratory allergies in pharmaceutical workers exposed to the substance; 53 consumption of plantago seed in cereal, responsible for anaphylaxis in a 60-year-old female (immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization was documented, and patient was successfully treated with oral diphenhydramine); 54 and a report on workers in a psyllium processing plant evaluated for occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to psyllium. 55
Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous plant constituent found in plant cell walls, leaves and seeds. It is made from the metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. It occurs primarily in seeds and leaves both in its free form and covalently linked to lignin and other biopolymers. Due to its phenolic nucleus and an extended side chain conjugation, it readily forms a resonance stabilized phenoxy radical which accounts for its potent antioxidant potential. UV absorption by ferulic acid catalyzes stable phenoxy radical formation and thereby potentiates its ability to terminate free radical chain reactions. By virtue of effectively scavenging deleterious radicals and suppressing radiation-induced oxidative reactions, ferulic acid may serve an important antioxidant function in preserving physiological integrity of cells exposed to both air and impinging UV radiation. Similar photoprotection is afforded to skin by ferulic acid dissolved in cosmetic lotions. Its addition to foods inhibits lipid peroxidation and subsequent oxidative spoilage. By the same mechanism ferulic acid may protect against various inflammatory diseases. A number of other industrial applications are based on the antioxidant potential of ferulic acid.